ViewVC Help
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Revision: 2.20
Committed: Thu Jan 1 19:31:46 2004 UTC (20 years, 3 months ago) by greg
Branch: MAIN
CVS Tags: rad3R7P2, rad3R7P1, rad4R1, rad4R0, rad3R6, rad3R6P1, rad3R8, rad3R9
Changes since 2.19: +15 -15 lines
Log Message:
Renamed rview, lam, calc, and neat to rvu, rlam, icalc, and neaten

File Contents

# Content
1 trad.hlp 2.18 10/20/98
3 This help file is associated with the trad interface to the Radiance
4 rad(1) program. Trad consists of trad.wsh and one do_*.tcl file for
5 each screen. There are currently seven such screens: File, Scene,
6 Zone, Views, Options, Action and Results.
8 .Trad.Intro
10 Trad is a graphical user interface (GUI) to the
11 rad(1) program, which controls the operation of the basic
12 Radiance scene compiling, rendering and picture filtering programs.
13 Trad also includes links to a few utilities for displaying and
14 converting results, but most of what it does can be done by editing a
15 small text file, called the "rad input file".
16 Scene creation still requires the use of a text or graphical editor,
17 or translation from some external CAD format.
19 Trad interaction is broken into seven screens.
20 Each screen is accessed by pressing its associated radio
21 button along the right-hand side of the main window.
22 If trad is started with no file name, the File screen is displayed,
23 and you must pick a valid rad input file before any other screen may
24 be accessed.
25 If a name is given for a file that doesn't exist, trad goes to the
26 Scene screen and prompts you to enter the names of one or more
27 Radiance scene description files.
28 If a rad input file exists already, trad determines if there are
29 renderings still to be done or if everything is finished.
30 If there is still work to be done, trad opens first with the Action
31 screen.
32 If all renderings are complete and up-to-date, trad opens right to
33 Results screen.
35 For additional guidance on Radiance in general, consult the Radiance
36 Tutorial, Reference Manual, and man pages.
37 In particular, it is a good idea to read through the rad(1) man page
38 before using this interface.
40 To find out how to get more help, press the "Next" button to the
41 right.
43 .Trad.Help
45 If you have specific questions about trad, search through the
46 category and topic menus on this help window, or press and release
47 the left mouse button while holding the control key over the object of
48 curiosity in the main trad window.
49 (In general, only active windows are given help file links -- click
50 on these rather than the text labels.)
51 Additional search capabilities are available over all topics using
52 the "Grep" button.
54 For help on the help facility itself, Control-click on the problem
55 help widget or on the window title in the upper right corner for
56 more general information.
57 (To get back to trad-specific help, press the "HELP" button in the
58 main trad window or Control-click on a trad widget.)
60 .Trad.Messages
62 Informative messages, commands executed by rad, and errors
63 appear in the message window at the bottom of the trad frame.
64 Growing the trad window means growing this message window, and
65 not much else.
66 This is not really necessary, since the window will be grown
67 automatically if the message requires it.
69 Serious errors will be accompanied by the sounding of the bell.
71 .Trad.Quit
73 To quit the trad application, press the "Quit" button at any time.
74 If you have made changes to the rad input variables, you will be
75 asked prior to program exit if you want to save your changes first.
77 Any batch process running in the background will continue to run,
78 and the associated error messages will be viewable by
79 trad later when you open the same rad input file.
81 .File.Intro
83 This button selects the trad File screen, which allows rad input
84 files to be loaded and saved, and new files to be created.
86 .File.Load
88 This button loads the selected file into trad.
89 If the current file has been changed and these changes have not been
90 saved, you will be given first the opportunity to save your changes.
92 The actual load operation may take several seconds or even minutes,
93 depending on the status of the rendering process.
94 This is because the rad program itself is used to interpret the
95 input file, and if there is no up-to-date octree associated with the
96 file, it is necessary to run getbbox on the entire scene
97 before the variable values can be set.
98 It is possible to eliminate this delay in future loads by going to
99 the Action screen and running oconv.
101 If the opened file has read-only mode set (see chmod(1)), then the
102 "Read Only" check box will be lit.
103 Unchecking this box means that it will be possible to save the file
104 later, though the actual mode on the file will not be changed until
105 it is saved.
106 Loading a writable file always clears the "Read Only" check box.
108 If an error is encountered while trying to load the file, a message
109 will be printed in the box at the bottom.
111 .File.Save
113 The "Save" button in the File screen saves any changes to the
114 current file.
115 This information is saved in the original file by default, but may
116 be saved in another file by entering a new name in the "File" field.
117 If this new file already exists, a dialogue box will ask if you really
118 want to overwrite it.
119 If the file name is different than the original
120 one loaded, the "Read Only" check box will be ignored.
122 .File.New
124 The "New" button clears all rad variables in preparation for
125 writing a new rad input file.
126 If the file selected already exists, a warning box will ask if you
127 really want to ignore the previous file contents.
128 If you agree, then no warning will be given when the file is later
129 overwritten.
131 .File.ReadOnly
133 The "Read Only" check box permits you to indicate that the opened
134 file should not be overwritten.
135 This box will be checked automatically if the permissions on the
136 edited file do not allow writing by the user.
137 If the box is subsequently unchecked, trad will attempt to change
138 permissions and write to the file when a save is requested.
139 If this fails, an error message will indicate the problem.
141 .Scene.Intro
143 This button selects the trad Scene screen.
144 On this screen, you may enter the octree file and the scene files
145 that go into it, as well as any mkillum or other files on which the
146 scene depends.
147 These files are generally produced by hand in a text editor or by
148 conversion from an external CAD format, such as DXF.
149 (See the Radiance Reference Manual and Radiance Tutorial for details on the
150 information contained in these files.)
152 To enter a file of a particular type, press the corresponding button
153 to get a dialogue box that allows you to pick existing files from any
154 directory.
156 Use the "Discard" button to remove one or more files from a specific
157 list.
158 The actual file is untouched.
160 .Scene.Octree
162 The "Octree" entry in the Scene screen names the octree file to be
163 compiled by oconv from the materials and scene files.
164 (See the oconv(1) man page for more details.)
166 If make(1) is being used to build the octree, you should leave all
167 other windows on this screen empty.
168 The octree can still be rebuilt from trad by pressing the "oconv"
169 or "Force" buttons on the Action screen, but normally it is
170 expected to be current.
171 In particular, an unsupported octree must exist before loading
172 a rad input file on which it depends.
174 The default octree name is the root name from the render input file
175 plus ".oct".
176 If mkillum is being used (i.e. one or more illum files is given),
177 then two additional octrees will be created, named the same except
178 for an additional "0" or "1" immediately before the file suffix
179 (normally ".oct").
181 To delete the named octree, and therefore force the scene to be
182 recompiled and all the pictures to be rerendered, use the "Delete"
183 button next to the octree window.
185 .Scene.OctDelete
187 The "Delete" button next to the octree window removes the named
188 octree from the filesystem, forcing the scene to be later recompiled
189 and all the pictures to be rerendered (if desired).
190 This is appropriate if you add or remove materials, scene or illum
191 files from one or more lists, or make some change to a materials file
192 that requires the octree to be rebuilt (such as adding or removing
193 individual materials).
195 Verification is required before the octree will be deleted.
197 You can achieve the same effect as manually removing the octree by
198 pressing the "Force" button on the scene compilation section
199 of the Action screen.
200 (See the "Force" topic under the "Action" help category for more
201 information.)
203 .Scene.Materials
205 Materials files generally contain Radiance material descriptions
206 only, not geometry.
207 The purpose of listing them separately is so that minor changes to
208 material parameters will not force the octree to be rebuilt,
209 incurring an additional delay that is unnecessary.
211 The "Materials" button is used to add materials files to the list.
212 A dialogue box appears when you press this button and allows you to
213 select files to be included.
214 Each new selection is added to the end of the materials list.
215 The default matching pattern for material files is "*.mat".
216 This may of course be reassigned within the file selection window.
218 The list box showing the current materials may be edited in three
219 ways besides the dialogue for adding files.
220 First, entries may be removed from the list
221 using the "Discard" button.
222 Second, entries may be moved within the box by selecting them with
223 the left mouse button and clicking the middle mouse button over the
224 entry you wish to place the selected items above.
225 If you wish to put the selected items at the very end of the list,
226 click the middle mouse button below the last entry.
227 Third, entries may be moved from other windows by
228 selecting them and pressing the middle button.
229 This works for the list boxes on this screen as well as selections
230 in other windows on the display.
232 The order of materials files is usually unimportant, but sometimes
233 there are definitions in later files that depend on prerequisites in
234 earlier files.
235 An example of this is a window illum source that depends on a sky
236 description file, which must appear before it.
237 The order of files shown in the list is the order they will be given
238 to oconv and therefore to the rendering programs.
240 .Scene.Illum
242 Illum files are Radiance scene descriptions that contain surfaces
243 to be converted into illum sources by mkillum(1).
244 Please consult the manual page for mkillum and understand the
245 Radiance Tutorial before using this box, since these files differ slightly
246 from standard Radiance scene descriptions.
248 The "Illum" button is used to add illum files to the list.
249 A dialogue box appears when you press this button and allows you to
250 select files to be included.
251 Each new selection is added to the end of the illum list.
252 The default matching pattern for material files is "*.rad".
253 This may of course be reassigned within the file selection window.
255 The list box showing the current illum files may be edited in three
256 ways besides the dialogue for adding files.
257 First, entries may be removed from the list
258 using the "Discard" button.
259 Second, entries may be moved within the box by selecting them with
260 the left mouse button and clicking the middle mouse button over the
261 entry you wish to place the selected items above.
262 If you wish to put the selected items at the very end of the list,
263 click the middle mouse button below the last entry.
264 Third, entries may be moved from other windows by
265 selecting them and pressing the middle button.
266 This works for the list boxes on this screen as well as selections
267 in other windows on the display.
269 .Scene.Scene
271 Scene files give the geometry and (perhaps) some of the materials
272 used in a particular Radiance model.
273 These files are given to oconv(1) in the order specified.
274 The ordering of files is usually not important, unless some later
275 files use materials or other modifiers defined in earlier files.
277 The "Scene" button is used to add scene files to the list.
278 A dialogue box appears when you press this button and allows you to
279 select files to be included.
280 Each new selection is added to the end of the scene list.
281 The default matching pattern for material files is "*.rad".
282 This may of course be reassigned within the file selection window.
284 The list box showing the current scene files may be edited in three
285 ways besides the dialogue for adding files.
286 First, entries may be removed from the list
287 using the "Discard" button.
288 Second, entries may be moved within the box by selecting them with
289 the left mouse button and clicking the middle mouse button over the
290 entry you wish to place the selected items above.
291 If you wish to put the selected items at the very end of the list,
292 click the middle mouse button below the last entry.
293 Third, entries may be moved from other windows by
294 selecting them and pressing the middle button.
295 This works for the list boxes on this screen as well as selections
296 in other windows on the display.
298 .Scene.Objects
300 Object files are files on which the given octree depends, but which
301 are not included directly on the oconv command line.
302 If any of these files is modified, then it is assumed that the
303 octree must be rebuilt.
305 To automatically determine which files in the working directory
306 affect the octree, press the "Auto" button just below the "Objects"
307 button.
308 Note that this will only add files to the object list.
309 If you wish to completely replace what is already there, you must
310 therefore select all the files and use the "Discard" button before
311 pressing "Auto".
313 .Scene.Discard
315 The "Discard" button removes the selected file names from a list.
316 The actual files are untouched, of course.
317 (Some care should be taken here, since there is no undo
318 function associated with this window other than reloading the
319 original information with the "Revert" button.)
321 .Scene.Edit
323 Use the "Edit" button to open a text editor on the selected file(s).
324 This is a convenient way to look at and change the contents of the
325 Radiance input files.
327 .Scene.Copy
329 The "Copy" button may be used to selectively copy the scene file
330 information from another rad input file.
331 Specifically, the variables "OCTREE, materials, illum, scene and
332 objects" will be read in to replace the current values.
334 All other variables will be unaffected.
336 .Scene.Revert
338 The "Revert" button is a convenient way to revert to the original
339 values in the rad input file.
340 Only the variables on the Scene screen will be affected, but any changes
341 to these variables since the last save will be lost.
343 .Zone.Intro
345 This button selects the trad Zone screen.
346 On this screen, the user should enter the maximum and minimum
347 coordinates of the zone of interest for this set of renderings.
348 This zone need not correspond exactly to any interior or exterior
349 walls, as it is used primarily to set rendering parameters and
350 standard viewpoints.
352 An interior zone means that standard viewpoints will be selected
353 from the inside of this box.
354 An exterior zone means that standard viewpoints will be selected
355 from the outside of this box.
356 The default zone is an exterior one computed from the bounding box
357 of the entire scene.
358 (Note that this is not usually desirable.)
360 In addition to the ZONE variable, this screen offers the ability
361 to set four other rad variables that are generally associated with a
362 particular scene and a particular zone.
364 variables.
365 For more information on these topics, use the Topic menu or consult
366 the rad manual page.
368 .Zone.Type
370 There are two types of zones understood by rad, "Interior" and
371 "Exterior".
372 An interior zone is indicated when renderings generally take place
373 inside a specified 3-d box.
374 A typical example might be a single room or auditorium.
375 An exterior zone is indicated when renderings generally take place
376 outside a specified 3-d box, which is the focus of attention.
377 A typical example might be a building exterior or a single object,
378 such as a chair.
380 .Zone.Zone
382 A zone is specified by six real numbers, corresponding to the world
383 coordinates of the box's corners.
384 Zone boxes are always axis-aligned, therefore one need only specify
385 the minimum and maximum X, Y, and Z coordinates.
387 The exact values of these coordinates is not terribly important, as
388 they are only used to guide the setting of certain rendering
389 parameters and standard view positions.
390 It does not matter for instance whether the values lie on the inside
391 or the outside of walls, or if there are non-rectilinear geometries
392 defining the space perimeter.
393 In fact, the whole space may not even be aligned with the X, Y, and Z
394 axes, and a very approximate box may be given.
395 In this case, the standard views may not be very intelligent or
396 useful, but the rendering parameters will still be satisfactory so
397 long as the overall size of the given box is close to the overall
398 size of the space.
400 The Zone entry windows may be manipulated in the following ways.
401 Control-V pastes the contents of the current selection at the
402 insertion point.
403 Return moves the focus to the next window in the chain.
405 The "Auto" button may be used to set these values based on the bounding
406 box of one or more Radiance scene files.
408 .Zone.Auto
410 Use this button to automatically determine the bounding box for this
411 zone, based on the output of the "getbbox" command run on one or
412 more Radiance scene files.
413 The appropriate scene files are entered via a file
414 selection dialogue box, which comes up after the button is pressed.
416 The reason for selecting specific files rather than running getbbox
417 on the entire scene is that a zone usually does not include large
418 external objects, which may be present in the complete scene
419 description.
421 .Zone.Detail
423 The "Detail" setting indicates the relative level
424 of geometric detail in this zone.
425 If the zone is empty except for a few large pieces of furniture, a
426 "Low" setting is indicated.
427 (For an exterior zone, low detail would mean that the object is
428 relatively simple.)
429 If the zone contains a usual amount of furniture and clutter, a
430 "Medium" setting is appropriate.
431 If the zone contains a great many small objects or protrusions, a
432 setting of "High" is indicated.
434 This variable is used by rad to set rendering parameters that are
435 affected by the sizes of objects relative to the overall size of the
436 space.
438 .Zone.Indirect
440 The "Indirect" setting indicates how important indirect illumination
441 is in this space.
442 A setting of "0" means that most light falls directly on visible
443 surfaces, and this setting can be used in most cases.
444 A setting of "1" means that most objects are not directly
445 illuminated by light sources, but receive light only after it has
446 bounced once off some other surface, such as the ceiling.
447 Likewise, a setting of "2" means that light must reflect twice off
448 other surfaces before reaching most objects of interest.
450 Keep in mind that the rendering calculation increases substantially
451 with each increment to this variable, so it is a good idea to use
452 the smallest reasonable value.
454 .Zone.Variability
456 The "Variability" setting gives a qualitative indication of how
457 light varies in magnitude over surfaces in this zone.
458 In a typical direct or indirect lighting situation, this variable
459 would be set to "Low", indicating that light is fairly uniform
460 throughout the space.
461 If there are some areas that are much better lit than others, such
462 as desks with powerful tasks lights in a room with dimmer ambient
463 lighting, a "Medium" setting is appropriate.
464 If there is direct sunlight entering the room, casting bright
465 patches on some surfaces and not others, then a setting of "High" is
466 indicated.
468 Note that this variable speaks to the magnitude of light variations
469 more than the patterns of light.
470 It may well be that the light is casting interesting patterns such
471 as scallops on the walls or something, but as long as the variations
472 in brightness are less than an order of magnitude or so, it is a low
473 variability situation.
474 The high variability
475 example given above of direct sun entering a space corresponds to a
476 a variation in brightness of about three orders of magnitude, or
477 1,000 to 1!
479 .Zone.Exposure
481 The "Exposure" setting gives the multiplier between the initial
482 radiance values at each pixel (in watts/steradian/meter^2) to the
483 display pixel values (in the range of 0-1, where 0 is black and 1 is
484 the maximum monitor output).
485 This setting also determines the average "ambient level," which is
486 an important parameter for rendering accuracy.
488 There are two basic ways to compute the exposure value.
489 The first is by trial and error, where the value is adjusted up and
490 down within rvu using the "e = value" command.
491 Though it sounds flaky, this is the most reliable way to set the
492 exposure (and ambient level) in general lighting situations.
494 The second method is using a zonal cavity approximation.
495 For this, you must estimate the total light flux entering the zone
496 from light sources and windows, and the total illuminated area.
497 (This applies to interior zones, only. For exterior zones, use the
498 value suggested by gensky in its output.)
499 In addition, you must approximate the area-weighted average
500 reflectance of the illuminated surfaces.
501 The formula then for the exposure multiplier using this information
502 is: pi*tot_area*(1-avg_refl)/(2*tot_flux*avg_refl)
503 where pi is 3.1416, tot_area is given in square meters and
504 tot_flux is given in watts.
505 (Divide total lumens by 179 lumens/watt to get watts.)
507 The exposure value may either be given as a positive real value, or
508 as a real value preceded by a '+' or '-' indicating a positive or
509 negative number of f-stops (powers of two) from the original value.
511 If no exposure is given, pfilt will automatically compute the
512 average for each image, and a default ambient level of 10 will be
513 used for exterior zones and 0.01 for interior zones.
515 .Zone.Copy
517 The "Copy" button on the Zone screen takes all values for this
518 screen from another rad input file, replacing the current values.
519 Specifically, the rad variables "ZONE, DETAIL, INDIRECT,
520 VARIABILITY and EXPOSURE" will be copied from the named file.
522 All other variables will be left untouched.
524 .Zone.Revert
526 The "Revert" button is a convenient way to revert to the original
527 values in the rad input file.
528 Only the variables on the Zone screen will be affected, but any changes
529 to these variables since the last save will be lost.
531 .Views.Intro
533 This button selects the trad Views screen.
534 This screen provides a means of setting the multi-valued
535 "view" variable.
536 Each view setting is listed by name, or by number if no name has
537 been assigned.
538 To add a new view, enter a unique name and specify the view
539 options,
540 then press the "Add" or "Set Default" button.
541 If a view with the same name already exists, it is unconditionally
542 overwritten.
543 To modify a particular view, simply select it, change its name
544 and/or parameters, and press the "Change" button.
545 To remove an unwanted view, select it and press the "Delete" button.
546 To undo this action, simply press the "Add" button again.
548 The first view in the list is the default given to rvu during
549 interactive rendering, and is the first view rendered in a batch run.
550 To change the default view, select the newly desired view and press
551 the "Set Default" button.
552 This button also acts like the "Add" button inasmuch as a new view
553 may be entered and this button will add it and make it the default
554 at the same time.
556 The Views screen also allows the standard view up vector to be
557 changed, as well as the root picture name and the output resolution.
559 .Views.List
561 The list box on the far left of the Views screen shows the
562 currently defined view names.
563 Clicking on any of these with the left mouse button shows the view
564 parameters and allows the view to be edited.
566 To change the name or options, edit the "Name" or "Options"
567 entry and click on the "Change" button.
569 Use the "Add" button to add a new view, which may be modified from
570 an old one by changing the name and options.
572 Use the "Delete" button to delete the selected view from the list.
574 Views are listed in the order in which they appear in
575 the rad input file.
577 The standard view is "X" is used if no views are specified.
579 .Views.Name
581 Each view has a unique name, which may be chosen at the user's
582 discretion or taken from a list of standard views, described below.
583 An invented name should be kept as short as possible, since it is
584 added to the picture file name along with the standard ".pic" suffix.
586 The standard views are specified by strings of the form
587 "[Xx]?[Yy]?[Zz]?[vlahc]?".
588 (That is, an optional upper or lower case X followed by an optional
589 upper or lower case Y followed by an optional upper or lower case Z
590 followed by an optional lower case V, L, A, H or C.)
591 The letters indicate the desired view position, where upper case "X"
592 means maximum X, lower case "y" means minimum Y and so on.
593 The final letter is the view type, where 'v' is perspective (the
594 default), 'l' is parallel, 'a' is angular fisheye, 'h' is
595 hemispherical fisheye and 'c' is for cylindrical panorama.
596 A perspective view from maximum X, minimum Y would be "Xy" or
597 "Xyv".
598 A parallel view from maximum Z would be "Zl".
599 If "ZONE" is an interior zone, the standard views will
600 be inside the perimeter.
601 If it is an exterior zone, the standard views will be outside.
602 Note that the standard views are best used as starting points,
603 and additional arguments may be given after the
604 identifier to modify a standard view to suit a particular model.
606 .Views.Options
608 The "Options" entry window is where the Radiance view
609 corresponding to the selected name is given.
610 If the view is one of the standard names (described in the "Views
611 Name" section), then the options are truly optional, and will
612 modify the standard view.
613 Otherwise, it is usually necessary to specify a set of options to
614 define a view.
616 The simplest view specification is of the form "-vf viewfile", where
617 "viewfile" is a file created with the rvu "view" command, or a
618 Radiance picture.
619 This method of naming views, although convenient, is not the best
620 since it is difficult to know exactly where such a view is by
621 seeing only its file name.
622 Also, the file may change or be moved or removed, and then the view
623 may be different than expected or gone altogether.
625 To add view options selected from another X11 window, select the
626 text from another window in the normal fashion, use the left mouse
627 button to click on the insertion point in the options string, then
628 use Control-V to insert the text at that point.
629 For convenience, the middle mouse button has been made
630 equivalent to Control-V in this window, but it is not the normal
631 interaction mode for trad.
633 Consult the rpict(1) manual page for a full description of the various
634 view options, all of which begin with "-v".
635 Just briefly, the "-vt?" option sets the view type, where "?" is
636 replaced by one of the letters "v, l, a, h or c", corresponding to
637 perspective, parallel, angular fisheye, hemispherical fisheye
638 and cylindrical panorama, respectively.
639 The "-vp x y z" option sets the view position (eyepoint), where "x y z"
640 is replaced by the position in 3-space.
641 The "-vd xd yd zd" option sets the view direction, where "xd yd zd"
642 is a vector pointing in the desired direction.
643 (To compute this direction from a "look-at" point, simply subtract
644 the eyepoint from the look-at point. Vector normalization is
645 unnecessary.)
646 The "-vh horiz" and "-vv vert" options set the horizontal and
647 vertical view sizes, respectively.
648 For perspective views, these correspond to full camera angles in
649 degrees.
650 For parallel views (using the "-vtl" option), they correspond to
651 image plane size in world coordinates.
652 The lesser used "-vu xd yd zd", "-vs vs" and "-vl vl" options
653 will not be discussed here.
655 The order of the view options is irrelevant, unless the same option
656 is given twice, in which case the last one is used.
657 Trad does not check the syntax of the view options strings, so be
658 careful!
659 In particular, make sure that each option and each argument has a
660 space between it and whatever follows.
662 Hitting return in the "Options" window is equivalent to pressing the
663 "Add" button followed by the "Clear" button.
665 .Views.Add
667 The view "Add" button takes the currently defined view given by the
668 "Name" and "Options" windows and appends it to the list of views.
669 If another view by the same name exists, it is removed first.
671 Since the view is added to the end of the "Views" list, the "Add"
672 button is a convenient way to move views to a lower-priority
673 position.
674 Simply select the view you wish to be last and press "Add".
676 To add a view as the first (i.e. the default) view instead of the
677 last, use the "Set Default" button.
679 .Views.Change
681 The view "Change" button deletes the currently selected view and
682 adds the currently defined view in its place, changing the name
683 and/or view options in the process.
685 .Views.Delete
687 The view "Delete" button removes the currently selected view from
688 the view list.
690 To undo this action, simply press the "Add" button immediately
691 afterwards, while the deleted view is still present in the edit
692 window.
694 .Views.Clear
696 The "Clear" button simply clears the "Name" and "Options" windows
697 for the convenience of entering a new view.
698 It has no effect on the rad input variables.
700 .Views.Default
702 The "Set Default" button may be used to make the selected view the
703 default view for rendering.
704 This simply moves the view to the top of the list in the rad input file.
705 The default view will be the one normally rendered by rvu when rad
706 is started interactively, and is the first view rendered in a batch
707 process.
709 A new view may be added as the default view by pressing the "Set
710 Default" button rather than the "Add" button.
711 It is never necessary to press both.
713 If the selected view is already the default, this button will be
714 disabled and will read "Is Default" instead of "Set Default".
716 .Views.Up
718 The standard view up vector may be set to the positive X axis (+X),
719 the positive Y axis (+Y), the positive Z axis (+Z), the negative
720 X axis (-X), the negative Y axis (-Y), or the negative Z axis (-Z).
722 This setting may always be overridden by the "-vu xd yd zd" option,
723 and will be altered for a particular view if it happens to be
724 parallel to the view direction.
726 .Views.Eyesep
728 The eye separation is used for generating stereo views of
729 the scene.
730 It is the measured distance between a viewer's pupils in world
731 coordinate units.
732 It is not used directly by rad, but should be set for other programs
733 that need it, such as rholo and glrad.
735 .Views.Picture
737 The root picture file name is given in the "Picture" entry window.
738 To this will be added an underscore, followed by the name of
739 the particular view being rendered, followed by the ".pic" suffix.
741 To render pictures into a different directory than the one
742 containing the rad input file, simply precede the file name by a
743 relative or absolute directory.
744 (Do not use the tilde shorthand for home directories,
745 as it is not guaranteed to work on all systems.)
747 The default picture name is the root name of the rad input file.
749 .Views.Resolution
751 The final picture resolution is set in the "Resolution" entry
752 window.
753 The first entry is the X resolution (in pixels), and the second
754 (optional) entry is the Y resolution.
755 If there is only one entry, the maximum X and Y resolution will be
756 equal.
757 If a third entry is given, it is taken as the aspect ratio of the
758 destination pixels.
759 A number greater than one means that the pixels on the destination
760 device are taller than they are wide (and therefore there are more
761 of them horizontally than vertically spanning a like distance), and
762 a number less than one means the opposite.
763 An aspect ratio of zero means that the exact given X and Y
764 dimensions are to be honored, whatever the resulting pixel ratio.
765 Normally, either the X or the Y resolution is reduced as necessary
766 to maintain a specific pixel aspect ratio (1 by default).
768 The default value for this variable is "512".
770 .Views.Rawfile
772 The "Rawfile" entry window determines if and where the raw output picture
773 from rpict will be saved.
774 If the entry is empty, the file will be removed after rendering and
775 filtering.
776 This is the normal action, since the raw file
777 takes up disk space and is not generally useful.
778 However, if you wish to perform some special filtering function,
779 this file can be renamed instead of removed by giving a
780 root file name in this entry window.
781 The final name in this case will be the given root plus and
782 underscore plus the view name followed by a ".pic" suffix.
784 In the special case when the raw file name and picture file name are
785 the same, the raw file is saved and no filtering takes place.
787 .Views.Zfile
789 The "Zfile" entry window gives the root name of the file in which to
790 store the raw (binary floating point) distances to pixels in the
791 original generated image.
792 If this entry is empty, then no z-file will be saved.
794 The final z-file name will be the given root plus an underscore plus
795 the view name plus a ".zbf" suffix.
797 To convert this image to human-readable form, the program "od" will
798 work on some systems, or the Radiance "pvalue" program may be used
799 to first convert it to a greyscale Radiance picture using the
800 options "-r -h -b -df `getinfo -d < pictname`" where "pictname" is
801 replaced by the raw picture file name.
802 (Getinfo simply gets the original image dimensions, which are not
803 stored in the z-file.)
805 .Views.Copy
807 The "Copy" button in the Views screen permits those variables
808 represented on this screen to be copied from another rad input file.
809 Specifically, the affected variables are "view, UP, PICTURE, and
812 The original values will be lost, and all other variables will be
813 untouched.
815 .Views.Revert
817 The "Revert" button is a convenient way to revert to the original
818 values in the rad input file.
819 Only the variables on the Views screen will be affected, but any changes
820 to these variables since the last save will be lost.
822 .Options.Intro
824 This button selects the trad Options screen.
825 This screen allows the setting of various options for
826 controlling the rendering process.
827 The most general option is rendering "Quality", which determines the
828 overall accuracy and beauty of the pictures produced.
829 A separate "Penumbras" option indicates the importance of soft
830 shadows in this scene.
831 The "Ambfile" variable allows you to specify a file for sharing
832 ambient files between runs, and it is recommended that you set
833 this variable for high quality renderings.
834 The "Optfile" variable allows you to specify a separate file for
835 storing rendering options, which reduces the size of the command
836 line and makes it easier to run programs such as rtrace(1).
837 The "Report" variable may be used to specify a time interval (in
838 minutes) between progress reports.
840 Other windows allow the user to customize the options to oconv(1),
841 mkillum(1), rvu(1) and rpict(1), and pfilt(1).
843 .Options.Quality
845 The "Quality" setting affects the overall accuracy and beauty of the
846 renderings produced.
848 A "Low" setting is appropriate for quick checks of scene geometry and
849 crude lighting studies.
850 No interreflection calculation will take place, regardless of the
851 setting of the "INDIRECT" variable, and other options are tuned for
852 speed over accuracy.
853 The computed picture size will exactly equal the final picture
854 size, thus some aliasing may be apparent.
856 A "Medium" quality setting is most often used for draft renderings, as
857 it provides a good balance between rendering time and accuracy.
858 The number of interreflections calculated will be equal to the
859 setting of the "INDIRECT" variable.
860 The computed picture size will be twice the final size, for a modest
861 degree of anti-aliasing.
863 A "High" quality setting is usually reserved for final renderings.
864 The number of interreflections computed will equal the value of the
865 "INDIRECT" variable plus one, to guarantee accuracy.
866 The computed picture size will be three times the final size, so
867 aliasing artifacts should be negligible.
869 When increasing the value of the "Quality" setting, it is usually a
870 good idea to delete the old "Ambfile", if there is one.
871 (See the "AmbDelete" topic under the current help category for
872 details.)
874 .Options.Penumbras
876 The "Penumbras" setting determines whether or not Radiance will
877 make a special effort to generate soft shadows from area light sources.
878 Since this is a potentially expensive calculation, penumbras should
879 only be switched "On" when they are really needed.
881 Leaving this setting "Off" does not mean that area light sources
882 will be treated as points.
883 It only means that some accuracy and possibly some smoothness
884 will be traded for speed in the shadow calculations.
886 .Options.Ambfile
888 The "Ambfile" is the file used to store Radiance ambient values for
889 later reuse in other renderings.
890 This can greatly reduce the time required to generate multiple
891 views, as well as improve the quality of a single view whenever
892 interreflections are computed.
894 It is strongly recommended that the user set this variable, especially
895 when the "QUALITY" variable is set to "High".
896 The usual convention is to use the root name of the rad input file,
897 followed with the ".amb" suffix.
898 It is generally not a good idea to share ambient files between
899 different zones, as the placement and accuracy of these values will
900 vary according to the location and characteristics of each zone.
902 .Options.AmbDelete
904 The "Delete" button next to the "Ambfile" window on the Options
905 screens allows you to remove the named ambient file.
906 This is usually done when a change to one or more rad variables
907 casts doubt on the accuracy of the values stored in this file.
908 In particular, increases in the variables, "DETAIL, INDIRECT,
909 VARIABILITY, EXPOSURE or QUALITY" generally invalidate this file.
911 If the ambient file is not empty, you will be asked to verify this
912 operation since the values may represent a significant computational
913 effort.
915 .Options.Optfile
917 The "Optfile" setting assigns a file to hold rendering options,
918 which may be a convenience when these options are reused for
919 rtrace(1) or rpiece(1), or manual invocations of rvu or rpict.
920 Using an options file also reduces the size of the command line,
921 making it a little easier on the eye.
923 To assure that the "Optfile" contents are up-to-date, you should press
924 the "oconv" or "Script" button on the Action screen.
926 .Options.Report
928 The "Report" setting indicates the time interval (in minutes)
929 between rpict progress reports.
930 Normally, rpict runs silently, but it is often nice to know how far
931 a given rendering has progressed.
932 Normally, progress reports and errors during batch renderings
933 are sent to the error file given by the root of the rad input
934 file name followed by the ".err" suffix.
935 (See the "CheckErr" topic under the "Action" screen category.)
936 If you wish these reports and errors to be directed to a different
937 file, follow the time interval by a space and a file name.
939 No setting on this variable means do not report rendering progress.
940 A zero setting means the same thing, and may be used when a
941 separate error file is desired but progress reports are not.
943 .Options.Oconv
945 The "oconv opts" window may be used to specify any additional
946 options to the oconv(1) command used to compile the scene
947 description.
949 In particular, the "-f" option for creating a "frozen" octree may
950 speed rendering start-up substantially, although it makes it
951 impossible to change even material properties without
952 recompiling the scene again.
953 (The "-f" option is technically incompatible with naming
954 "materials" files on the Scene screen.)
956 If oconv generates a "set overflow" error, it may mean that the "-r
957 res" option is needed to increase the octree resolution.
958 See the oconv(1) man page for details.
960 The "-i octree" option should be used with extreme caution, as incremental
961 building of octrees is not very well supported by rad.
962 You may do it this way if you specify the input octree as one of the
963 "Objects" files on the Scene screen, but it is preferable to use the
964 UNIX make(1) utility to incrementally build the octree instead, and
965 indicate this by not specifying any illum or scene files.
967 .Options.Mkillum
969 The "mkillum opts" window may be used to specify options to the
970 mkillum(1) command, whose options are actually passed to rtrace(1).
971 These options apply only if there are one or more "Illum" files
972 named on the Scene screen.
974 It is very important to set mkillum options sensibly,
975 since rad does not have the intelligence to do it for you.
977 .Options.Render
979 The "render opts" window is used to specify additional options to
980 the rvu(1) and rpict(1) rendering programs.
981 Most of the important parameters are computed by rad, so this
982 window is usually used to override specific parameters or to give
983 additional information, such as which materials to exclude from the
984 interreflection calculation.
986 .Options.Pfilt
988 The "pfilt opts" window is used to specify additional options to
989 the pfilt(1) picture filtering program.
991 Note that the "-e expval", "-x xres" and "-y yres" options are
992 already dictated by the settings of the "EXPOSURE" and "RESOLUTION"
993 variables, and should therefore be used with caution.
995 Also note that the setting of some pfilt options require a
996 two-pass filtering process, rather than the default single pass.
997 If no "EXPOSURE" setting is given, this is not a problem, but if a
998 value for the "EXPOSURE" variable is set as recommended, then it is
999 necessary to manually specify the "-2" option to pfilt, followed by
1000 an exposure that undoes the "EXPOSURE" setting.
1001 An equivalent workaround is to unset the EXPOSURE variable and
1002 manually set the render option "-av V V V", where "V" is equal to
1003 0.5/old_EXPOSURE.
1005 .Options.Copy
1007 The "Copy" button in the Options screen permits those variables
1008 represented on this screen to be copied from another rad input file.
1009 Specifically, the affected variables are "QUALITY, PENUMBRAS,
1010 AMBFILE, OPTFILE, REPORT, oconv, mkillum, render and pfilt".
1012 The original values will be lost, and all other variables will be
1013 untouched.
1015 .Options.Revert
1017 The "Revert" button is a convenient way to revert to the original values
1018 in the rad input file.
1019 Only the variables on the Options screen will be affected, but any changes
1020 to these variables since the last save will be lost.
1022 .Action.Intro
1024 This button selects the trad Action screen.
1025 This screen is where the actual Radiance programs are
1026 run, usually via rad(1).
1027 The top row of buttons is used to update the octree following a
1028 change to one or more input files.
1029 The "rvu" button starts an interactive rendering in the
1030 foreground.
1031 The next set of buttons provides for the control of a batch
1032 rendering process, taking place in the background.
1033 Finally, the bottom set of buttons allows you to preview what would
1034 happen during a batch rendering, or (equivalently) make a script of
1035 UNIX commands for later execution.
1037 When the Action screen is first brought up, the message window
1038 displays the current status of any batch rendering process.
1039 The status must either be "No batch rendering in progress," which
1040 means that as far as trad can tell a batch rendering was never
1041 started, "Batch rendering stopped," meaning that there is no current
1042 process but at least some views have not been rendered or are
1043 out-of-date, or "Batch rendering finished," meaning that everything
1044 is done.
1046 .Action.Oconv
1048 The "oconv" button on the Action screen may be used to manually
1049 compile the scene description and bring the octree up to date.
1050 It is normally not necessary to use this button, since the octree
1051 will be rebuilt if appropriate prior to rendering.
1052 However, if the octree is maintained by make(1) rather than rad, or
1053 the octree was never created and you want trad to start a little
1054 faster next time, or you just need the octree for some reason other
1055 than rendering, this is the button for you.
1057 If you have made changes to the rad variables or the Radiance
1058 material files that invalidate the current octree or renderings but
1059 would not automatically rebuild the octree because the scene files
1060 themselves were not changed, it may be wise to use the "Force"
1061 button.
1062 In contrast, if you have made some insignificant changes to the
1063 scene files that should not make any difference to the octree or the
1064 renderings, you may want to use the "Touch" button.
1066 Pressing the "oconv" button also updates the contents of the
1067 "Optfile" if one is given on the Options screen.
1068 This may be useful for computing rendering parameters for rtrace(1)
1069 or rpiece(1).
1071 .Action.Force
1073 The "Force" button on the Action screen
1074 causes the octree to be unconditionally rebuilt,
1075 by removing it first.
1076 This will also require all pictures to be rerendered, so only use
1077 this button if it is really necessary, i.e. if you have made
1078 some important changes to the rad
1079 variables on the Scene, Zone or Options screens, but have not
1080 changed any scene file on which the octree depends.
1082 If the octree itself should not be affected by these changes, only
1083 the renderings, you may delete the faulty picture files instead from
1084 the Results screen and the ambient file (if it exists) from the
1085 Options screen.
1087 .Action.Touch
1089 The "Touch" button on the Action screen
1090 should be used when some insignificant change has
1091 been made to the Radiance input files, which might otherwise cause
1092 the octree to be rebuilt and the picture files to be rerendered.
1094 Care should be exercised in using this button since you may have
1095 made a change that really does affect the octree in an important
1096 way.
1097 Even something as seemingly trivial as deleting an unused material
1098 will cause an unfrozen octree to become invalid and unusable.
1100 Therefore, if you know the octree should be rebuilt, but you do not
1101 want to cause any of the currently rendered pictures to be redone,
1102 press the "oconv" button to bring the octree up to date, followed
1103 by the "Touch" button.
1104 (This will still cause the ambient file to be removed,
1105 unfortunately.)
1107 .Action.Rvu
1109 The "rvu" button on the Action screen starts an interactive
1110 rendering for the selected view, indicated by the menu button
1111 just to the right.
1112 Other views may be accessed within rvu using the "L name"
1113 command, and new views can be added with the "V name"
1114 command.
1116 When using the "V" command to change an existing view, do not
1117 give it an existing name because the previous view will not be overridden.
1118 Instead, give it a new name (or no name, which will show up as
1119 a number later), then use the Views screen to override the previous
1120 view definition with the new one.
1121 (See the "View" topic in the current
1122 help category, the "Change" topic under "Views" and the rvu(1)
1123 manual page for more information.)
1125 If the octree is out-of-date, it will be rebuilt before rendering
1126 begins.
1128 .Action.View
1130 The Action screen contains two menus for selecting views.
1131 The top menu, next to the "rvu" button, sets the view to start
1132 with in rvu, and is selected from the current view list.
1133 The second view menu, next to the "Start" button for batch
1134 rendering, selects the view or views to render in batch mode.
1135 If the special entry "ALL" is selected, then every view in the
1136 current list will be rendered if it hasn't been already.
1138 The view menu next to the "rvu" button will be disabled if there
1139 is only one view to choose from.
1140 The view menu next to the "Start" button will be disabled if there
1141 is a batch job in progress, and thus the view cannot be changed.
1143 The batch rendering view menu also selects the view or views
1144 to use in producing a script during a dry run.
1146 .Action.Start
1148 The "Start" button for batch rendering on the Action screen
1149 initiates a rad rendering process in the background using the
1150 selected view or views shown on the menu button to the right.
1152 If any of the rad variables have been changed since the
1153 file was last saved, you will first be asked if you wish to save
1154 your changes before starting a background process.
1155 If you discard these changes, then the batch rendering will be
1156 conducted using the previously saved values.
1158 Once a background process is going, the "Start" button is
1159 disabled, and rendering progress can be monitored by checking
1160 the error file periodically.
1161 (This file is named by the root of the rad input file followed by
1162 ".err".)
1163 When a batch process is started or already running, or when a
1164 process is on another host and its status is unknown,
1165 this button will be disabled.
1167 The background process can be killed during this or later
1168 invocations of trad using the "Kill" button.
1169 If the process was started on another machine and the status is unknown,
1170 it will be necessary to run trad from the other host or remove the error
1171 file manually before starting a background process on this machine.
1172 This is to protect you from the great confusion that results when two
1173 machines are working from the same project file.
1175 .Action.Kill
1177 The batch rendering "Kill" button kills the
1178 background process started earlier with the "Start" button.
1179 The rad process id is taken from the first line of the error file,
1180 and this process and all its children are killed when the
1181 button is pressed.
1183 So long as there is an ambient file specified in the Options
1184 screen, no data is lost by killing and restarting a batch
1185 rendering, though some new startup costs will be incurred.
1187 The "Kill" button is disabled if no running batch process is
1188 detected on the current host machine.
1190 .Action.CheckErr
1192 Pressing the "Check errors" button
1193 displays the contents of the batch rendering error file, named
1194 by the root of the current rad input file followed by the ".err"
1195 suffix.
1196 This file will contain the command lines executed by rad so far,
1197 and may or may not contain additional progress reports from
1198 rpict, depending on the initial setting of the "REPORT" variable.
1200 If no error file exists, this button will be disabled.
1202 .Action.Script
1204 The dry run "Script" button runs rad with the
1205 "-n" option so that you may see the commands that would be
1206 executed during a batch run without actually executing them.
1207 If a file is named in the window next to this button, the output
1208 will simply be written to that file.
1209 If no file is named, a temporary file is created and an editor
1210 window is opened on it.
1212 Producing a dry run also writes the "Optfile" if one is specified
1213 on the Options screen.
1214 This may be useful for computing rendering parameters for rtrace(1)
1215 or rpiece(1).
1217 The view or views are selected by the same menu used for
1218 batch rendering.
1219 (See the "View" topic under the current help category for more
1220 information.)
1222 .Action.Edit
1224 The dry run "Edit" button is used to edit the named script file
1225 created by pressing the "Script" button.
1226 If no file is named, this button is ineffective.
1228 .Action.Delete
1230 The "Delete" button removes the named script file, created by the
1231 "Script" button.
1232 If no file is named, or the named file does not exist, this button has
1233 no effect.
1235 .Results.Intro
1237 This button selects the trad Results screen.
1238 This screen permits rendered pictures to be displayed,
1239 converted to other image formats, and printed.
1240 Only finished pictures may be converted or printed, but
1241 incomplete pictures (i.e. aborted renderings or renderings in
1242 progress) may be displayed interactively.
1244 The left-hand window shows a list of completed views, and the
1245 right-hand window shows views that have been started but not
1246 finished.
1247 Note that other views may not even be started, thus may not
1248 appear in either list.
1249 Also, just because a view appears on the Results screen, it does
1250 not mean that view is up-to-date with respect to the Radiance
1251 input files.
1252 (The best way currently to tell which pictures are out-of-date
1253 is to press the "Script" button on the Action screen and examine
1254 the output.)
1256 .Results.Finished
1258 The "Finished views" list box on the Results screen shows those
1259 renderings which have completed, whether or not they are up-to-date
1260 with respect to the Radiance input files.
1261 Select pictures in this box for display, conversion to other image
1262 formats, and/or printing.
1263 Selected pictures may also be deleted with the "Delete" button.
1265 To select one or more pictures from this box, click the left mouse
1266 button on a view name, and drag it up or down to select multiple
1268 Shift-click also allows views to be added to the selection.
1270 .Results.Unfinished
1272 The "Unfinished views" list box on the Results screen shows those
1273 renderings which have not yet completed.
1274 These partial pictures may or may not be out-of-date
1275 with respect to the Radiance input files.
1276 Select pictures in this box for display or deletion.
1277 It is not possible to convert or print an unfinished picture.
1279 To select one or more pictures from this box, click the left mouse
1280 button on a view name, and drag it up or down to select multiple
1282 Shift-click also allows views to be added to the selection.
1284 .Results.Rescan
1286 The "Rescan" button on the Results screen is used to update the
1287 finished and unfinished view lists, in case one or more pictures
1288 has completed since the Results screen was brought up.
1290 .Results.Delete
1292 The "Delete" button on the Results screen is used to remove the
1293 selected picture files from the filesystem.
1294 Associated raw picture and z-buffer files
1295 will also be deleted if they exist.
1296 Verification is required before any action is taken.
1298 .Results.Display
1300 The "Display" button on the Results screen may be used to display
1301 the selected images using ximage(1) or any other Radiance picture
1302 display program.
1304 The current display command is shown in the adjacent command window,
1305 and may be customized if necessary.
1306 (See the "DispCommand" topic in the current help category for
1307 details.)
1309 .Results.DispCommand
1311 The current display command in the Results screen determines how
1312 finished and unfinished Radiance pictures will be displayed.
1313 This command contains two variable fields.
1314 The first field is a signed integer, indicated by the "%+d" format.
1315 The second field is a string, indicated by the "%s" format.
1316 Both fields must appear in any display command used, and must be in
1317 this order on the command line.
1318 The first field is used to adjust the exposure of an unfinished
1319 picture, and the second field is the file name.
1320 The rest of the command is arbitrary, so long as it is understood by
1321 the system.
1323 The default command is "ximage -e %+d %s >& /dev/null &", which
1324 executes ximage in the background and sends any output (including
1325 error messages) to the null device.
1326 If you don't wish ximage to run in the background, you may remove
1327 the last part of the command (" >& /dev/null &").
1329 .Results.Convert
1331 The "Convert" button on the Results screen converts the selected
1332 pictures to the format indicated on the menu button to the right.
1333 (See the "ConvType" topic under the current help category for
1334 details.)
1336 Each finished picture is converted to the selected format and given
1337 the name indicated by the adjacent window labeled "File".
1338 (See the "ConvFile" topic under the current help category for
1339 details.)
1341 .Results.ConvType
1343 The image type button on the Results screen determines the
1344 destination format for converted Radiance pictures.
1345 You may choose from the list that pops up when you press this
1346 button.
1347 Often, a given format may have more than one subtype.
1348 In general, 8-bit means 8-bit color with a lookup table,
1349 B&W means 8-bit greyscale with no lookup, and 24-bit means 24-bit
1350 true color.
1352 The file suffix is determined by the basic conversion type, but may
1353 be changed along with the rest of the name by editing the file name
1354 window.
1355 (See the "ConvFile" topic under the current help category for
1356 details.)
1358 .Results.ConvFile
1360 The image conversion file name window on the Results screen should contain
1361 a single "%s" format field, which will be replaced by the view name
1362 being converted.
1364 The default name is the same as the value of the rad "PICTURE"
1365 variable, followed by a suffix appropriate to the selected file type.
1367 .Results.Print
1369 The "Print" button on the Results screen executes the given
1370 system command to print one copy each of the selected picture(s).
1371 This button does not work on unfinished pictures.
1373 The actual command used for printing may be edited in the adjacent
1374 window.
1375 (See the "PrintCommand" topic under the current help category for
1376 details.)
1378 .Results.PrintCommand
1380 The print command window on the Results screen contains the system
1381 command to use in printing out finished Radiance pictures.
1382 The "%s" format field, which must appear somewhere in the command,
1383 is replaced by the selected Radiance picture file name.
1384 This command is executed multiple times if multiple files are
1385 selected.
1387 The default command is "ra_ps %s | lpr", which converts the Radiance
1388 picture to a black and white PostScript file and sends it to the lpr
1389 print spooler.
1390 Add a "-c" option to "ra_ps" if the printer supports color.
1391 If your printer does not understand PostScript, or your system does
1392 not support lpr, this command must obviously be changed.